PDF Charging the Internal Combustion Engine

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In Stock. Book Description Springer. The ability of the compressor to provide high boost at low rpm may also be increased marginally because near choke conditions the compressor draws air inward through the bleed path.

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Ported shrouds are used by many turbocharger manufacturers. The center hub rotating assembly CHRA houses the shaft that connects the compressor impeller and turbine. It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction.

Turbocharger - Wikipedia

For instance, in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. The CHRA may also be considered "water-cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant. Water-cooled models use engine coolant to keep lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil coking destructive distillation of engine oil from the extreme heat in the turbine.

The development of air- foil bearings removed this risk. Ball bearings designed to support high speeds and temperatures are sometimes used instead of fluid bearings to support the turbine shaft. This helps the turbocharger accelerate more quickly and reduces turbo lag. When the pressure of the engine's intake air is increased, its temperature also increases. This occurrence can be explained through Gay-Lussac's law , stating that the pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature.

In addition, heat soak from the hot exhaust gases spinning the turbine will also heat the intake air. The warmer the intake air, the less dense, and the less oxygen available for the combustion event, which reduces volumetric efficiency.

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  • Not only does excessive intake-air temperature reduce efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation , which is destructive to engines. To compensate for the increase in temperature, turbocharger units often make use of an intercooler between successive stages of boost to cool down the intake air.

    A charge air cooler is an air cooler between the boost stage s and the appliance that consumes the boosted air. There are two areas on which intercoolers are commonly mounted.

    It can be either mounted on top, parallel to the engine, or mounted near the lower front of the vehicle. Top-mount intercoolers setups will result in a decrease in turbo lag, due in part by the location of the intercooler being much closer to the turbocharger outlet and throttle body.

    This closer proximity reduces the time it takes for air to travel through the system, producing power sooner, compared to that of a front-mount intercooler which has more distance for the air to travel to reach the outlet and throttle. Front-mount intercoolers can have the potential to give better cooling compared to that of a top-mount. The area in which a top-mounted intercooler is located, is near one of the hottest areas of a car, right above the engine.

    This is why most manufacturers include large hood scoops to help feed air to the intercooler while the car is moving, but while idle, the hood scoop provides little to no benefit. Even while moving, when the atmospheric temperatures begin to rise, top-mount intercoolers tend to underperform compared to front-mount intercoolers. With more distance to travel, the air circulated through a front-mount intercooler may have more time to cool.


    An alternative to intercooling is injecting water into the intake air to reduce the temperature. This method has been used in automotive and aircraft applications. Adding the mixture to intake of the turbocharged engines decreased operating temperatures and increased horse power. Turbocharged engines today run high boost and high engine temperatures to match.

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    When injecting the mixture into the intake stream, the air is cooled as the liquids evaporate. Inside the combustion chamber it slows the flame, acting similar to higher octane fuel. In addition to the use of intercoolers, it is common practice to add extra fuel to the intake air known as "running an engine rich" for the sole purpose of cooling. The amount of extra fuel varies, but typically reduces the air-fuel ratio to between 11 and 13, instead of the stoichiometric The extra fuel is not burned as there is insufficient oxygen to complete the chemical reaction , instead it undergoes a phase change from atomized liquid to gas.

    This phase change absorbs heat, and the added mass of the extra fuel reduces the average thermal energy of the charge and exhaust gas. Even when a catalytic converter is used, the practice of running an engine rich increases exhaust emissions.

    Intelligent Usage of Internal Combustion Engines in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    A wastegate regulates the exhaust gas flow that enters the exhaust-side driving turbine and therefore the air intake into the manifold and the degree of boosting. It can be controlled by a boost pressure assisted, generally vacuum hose attachment point diaphragm for vacuum and positive pressure to return commonly oil contaminated waste to the emissions system to force the spring-loaded diaphragm to stay closed until the overboost point is sensed by the ecu or a solenoid operated by the engine's electronic control unit or a boost controller , but most production vehicles use a single vacuum hose attachment point spring-loaded diaphragm that can alone be pushed open, thus limiting overboost ability due to exhaust gas pressure forcing open the wastegate.

    Turbocharged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm require a large volume of air to flow between the turbocharger and the inlet of the engine. When the throttle is closed, compressed air flows to the throttle valve without an exit i. In this situation, the surge can raise the pressure of the air to a level that can cause damage.


    This is because if the pressure rises high enough, a compressor stall occurs—stored pressurized air decompresses backward across the impeller and out the inlet. The reverse flow back across the turbocharger makes the turbine shaft reduce in speed more quickly than it would naturally, possibly damaging the turbocharger. To prevent this from happening, a valve is fitted between the turbocharger and inlet, which vents off the excess air pressure.

    These are known as an anti-surge, diverter, bypass, turbo-relief valve, blow-off valve BOV , or dump valve. It is a pressure relief valve , and is normally operated by the vacuum from the intake manifold. The primary use of this valve is to maintain the spinning of the turbocharger at a high speed. The air is usually recycled back into the turbocharger inlet diverter or bypass valves , but can also be vented to the atmosphere blow off valve. Recycling back into the turbocharger inlet is required on an engine that uses a mass-airflow fuel injection system, because dumping the excessive air overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor causes an excessively rich fuel mixture—because the mass-airflow sensor has already accounted for the extra air that is no longer being used.

    Valves that recycle the air also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbocharger after sudden engine deceleration, since load on the turbocharger when the valve is active is much lower than if the air charge vents to atmosphere. A free floating turbocharger is the simplest type of turbocharger. Free floating turbochargers produce more horsepower because they have less backpressure, but are not driveable in performance applications without an external wastegate. Also in , Chevrolet introduced a special run of turbocharged Corvairs , initially called the Monza Spyder — and later renamed the Corsa — , which mounted a turbocharger to its air cooled flat six cylinder engine.

    Today, turbocharging is common on both diesel and gasoline-powered cars. Turbocharging can increase power output for a given capacity [43] or increase fuel efficiency by allowing a smaller displacement engine. The first production turbocharger diesel passenger car was the Garrett-turbocharged [44] Mercedes SD introduced in The Audi R10 with a diesel engine even won the 24 hours race of Le Mans in , and Since then, few turbocharged motorcycles have been produced. This is partially due to an abundance of larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines being available that offer the torque and power benefits of a smaller displacement engine with turbocharger, but do return more linear power characteristics.

    A natural use of the turbocharger—and its earliest known use for any internal combustion engine, starting with experimental installations in the s—is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. However, since the charge in the cylinders is pushed in by this air pressure, the engine normally produces only half-power at full throttle at this altitude. Pilots would like to take advantage of the low drag at high altitudes to go faster, but a naturally aspirated engine does not produce enough power at the same altitude to do so.